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Category: History Philosophy On Science Nature

Download e-book for kindle: Biological Individuality: Integrating Scientific, by Scott Lidgard,Lynn K. Nyhart

By Scott Lidgard,Lynn K. Nyhart

Individuals are issues that everyone knows—or thinks they do. but even students who perform or research the organic sciences frequently can't agree on what anyone is and why. One cause of this war of words is that the numerous vital organic individuality innovations serve very varied purposes—defining, classifying, or explaining residing constitution, functionality, interplay, endurance, or evolution. certainly, because the individuals to Biological Individuality demonstrate, nature is just too messy for easy definitions of this idea, organisms too quirky within the varied methods they reproduce, functionality, and have interaction, and human principles approximately individuality too fraught with philosophical and old meaning.

Bringing jointly biologists, historians, and philosophers, this publication presents a multifaceted exploration of organic individuality that identifies major and no more accepted perceptions of individuality either previous and current, what they're reliable for, and in what contexts. organic perform and thought realize members at myriad degrees of association, from genes to organisms to symbiotic platforms. we rely on those notions of individuality to deal with theoretical questions about multilevel usual choice and Darwinian health; to light up empirical questions on improvement, functionality, and ecology; to flooring philosophical questions on the character of organisms and causation; and to probe ancient and cultural conditions that resonate with parallel questions about the character of society. Charting an interdisciplinary learn time table that broadens the frameworks during which organic individuality is mentioned, this publication makes transparent that during the world of the person, there's not and shouldn't be an immediate direction from organic paradigms in line with version organisms via to philosophical generalization and historic reification.

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Unspeakable: Father-Daughter Incest in American History by Lynn Sacco PDF

By Lynn Sacco

This background of father-daughter incest within the usa explains how cultural mores and political wishes distorted attitudes towards and clinical wisdom of patriarchal sexual abuse at a time whilst the kingdom was once devoted to the familial strength of white fathers and the idealized white family.

For a lot of the 19th century, father-daughter incest used to be understood to happen between all sessions, and felony and extralegal makes an attempt to accommodate it tended to be quick and serious. yet public figuring out replaced markedly through the innovative period, while accusations of incest started to be directed solely towards immigrants, blacks, and the reduce socioeconomic sessions. targeting early twentieth-century reform pursuits and that era’s epidemic of kid gonorrhea, Lynn Sacco argues that center- and upper-class white men, too, molested lady youngsters of their families, at the same time authentic files in their acts declined dramatically.

Sacco attracts on a wealth of assets, together with specialist journals, scientific and courtroom documents, and personal and public debts, to give an explanation for how racial politics self-interest between medical professionals, social employees, and pros in allied fields drove claims and proof of incest between center- and upper-class white households into the shadows. the hot feminism of the Nineteen Seventies, she unearths, introduced allegations of father-daughter incest again into the sunshine, growing new societal tensions.

Against a number of varied old backdrops―public accusations of incest opposed to "genteel" males within the 19th century, the epidemic of gonorrhea between younger women within the early 20th century, and grownup women’s incest narratives within the mid-to past due 20th century―Sacco demonstrates that angle shifts approximately patriarchal sexual abuse have been encouraged through a number of contributors and teams looking to guard their very own interests.

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Science in China, 1600–1900:Essays by Benjamin A Elman by Yi Kai Ho PDF

By Yi Kai Ho

Distinguished historian Benjamin A Elman's collective quantity at the background of technology in imperial China, brings jointly over 30 years of old literature at the topic. With updates to the literature and new fabric together with transcripts of podcasts and translated interview articles, Science in China takes the reader on a trip beginning within the early seventeenth century with the missionary efforts of the Jesuits in China, and finishing with the Protestant missions within the nineteenth century. those milestone encounters introduced Western sciences to neighborhood chinese language students with nice luck in shaping sleek chinese language technology. Elman experiences the interplay among Western and chinese language sciences via philological study and facts, and treats the 2 encounters now not as separate occasions yet as a continuum of artistic trade of clinical wisdom and discourse.

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Download e-book for kindle: Science, Technology and Society: Needs, Challenges and by Klaus-Heinrich Standke,M. Anandakrishnan

By Klaus-Heinrich Standke,M. Anandakrishnan

technology, expertise and Society: wishes, demanding situations and boundaries specializes in the position of technology and expertise in selling improvement in addition to its obstacle in shaping the society. The textual content outlines the contributions that this box has supplied in health and wellbeing, industries, agriculture, transportation, and verbal exchange.
The publication places emphasis at the position of technologists and scientists in selling improvement, similar to within the fields of biology and drugs. The textual content notes the emergence of socio-economic difficulties within the quarter of nutrition and agriculture and the way those difficulties will be solved via the appliance of agricultural applied sciences. Case stories during this regard that's offered during this publication contain fish dealing with and distribution, bettering soil fertility, and feed assets for animal feeding. The function of technological know-how and expertise within the administration of water assets is famous, and the issues linked to the appliance of technology and know-how to water assets improvement are mentioned. technology and expertise has additionally performed a tremendous function in bettering the standard of lifestyles in human settlements.
The textual content is a invaluable resource of information for scientists and technologists who target to enhance technology and know-how and serve the curiosity of mankind.

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Read e-book online El manantial de la vida: Genes y bioética (Ensayo nº 469) PDF

By Nicolás Jouve de la Barreda

¿Qué concepto tenemos del ser humano como ente biológico? ¿Cómo pudo l. a. evolución generar un ser consciente y ético a partir de unas bestias instintivas y egoístas? ¿Por qué le atribuimos al ser humano el mayor valor y dignidad entre los seres de l. a. naturaleza? ¿Es esta dignidad diferente a lo largo de los angeles vida, desde l. a. concepción hasta l. a. muerte? ¿Qué son realmente los embriones? ¿Cuándo empieza l. a. vida? ¿Es ético producir embriones en el laboratorio y utilizarlos con fines distintos a l. a. reproducción? ¿Existen razones para controlar los angeles fertilidad y l. a. natalidad? ¿A quién beneficia el aborto? ¿Hay algo más progresista que los angeles defensa de l. a. vida humana? ¿Por qué no es ético utilizar los embriones para investigar o producir patentes? Estas son algunas de las preguntas que a lo largo de sus diez capítulos trata de resolver este libro y cuyas respuestas se presentan de forma sencilla, documentada, divulgativa y asequible, basadas en l. a. objetividad y rigor propios de l. a. ciencia y desde una perspectiva bioética personalista y de defensa de l. a. vida humana en todas sus etapas, con el convencimiento de que el bien más preciado que tenemos y el derecho por encima de todos los derechos es el derecho a l. a. vida.

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Download e-book for iPad: The Electric Theories of J. Clerk Maxwell: A Historical and by Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem,Alan Aversa

By Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem,Alan Aversa

In this quantity Pierre Duhem first offers an summary of 19th century electrical energy and magnetism. subsequent, he applies his prepared historic, philosophical, and actual instinct to critiquing Maxwell’s theories, specially his electromagnetic concept of sunshine and the ad hoc creation of displacement present, which he considers an excessive amount of a fabricated from the “esprit de géométrie” than the “esprit de finesse,” as Pascal calls it.

In this ebook, Duhem is guided through the main thought that provides contradictions, no matter if the idea is posed through a genius, has to be analysed and mentioned till a transparent contrast should be made among the propositions more likely to be logically tested and statements that offend common sense and which has to be remodeled or rejected.

Furthermore, Duhem felt, in criticizing this kind of idea one needs to protect opposed to narrowness of brain and petty corrections which might make one overlook the advantage of the inventor; and, extra importantly, one needs to protect opposed to the blind superstition which, for admiration of the writer, might conceal the intense defects of the paintings. he's not so nice a genius that he surpasses the legislation of reason.

Pierre Duhem (1861-1916), chairman of theoretical physics at Bordeaux in 1984-1916, is recognized for his works within the heritage and philosophy of science.

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De tijd van het genie: De zeventiende eeuw en de geboorte - download pdf or read online

By A.C. Grayling

De zeventiende eeuw behoort tot de belangrijkste en meest bewogen perioden uit de westerse geschiedenis: het tijdperk van geniale denkers als Descartes, Spinoza, Newton en Hugo de Groot, waarin de wetenschap voorgoed veranderde, rede de overhand kreeg over traditie, de rechten van het individu werden erkend en het menselijk denken een nieuwe, beslissende ontwikkeling doormaakte.
Van dit wonderbaarlijke tijdperk in onze geschiedenis maakt A.C. Grayling in dit boek een briljante reconstructie en hij wekt de belangrijkste vertegenwoordigers van de zeventiende-eeuwse intelligentsia opnieuw tot leven: de grootheden op het gebied van wetenschap, recht, literatuur, filosofie, muziek - Shakespeare, Monteverdi, Galilei, Rembrandt, Locke, Newton, Vermeer, Hobbes, Milton, Cervantes en vele anderen.
Met De tijd van het genie heeft Grayling, befaamd historicus en filosoof, een sprankelende kroniek afgeleverd van een door oorlogen geteisterde episode, waarin Spanje en het Heilige Romeinse Rijk in verval raakten - en waaruit Engeland en De Nederlanden als supermachten oprezen. En waarin kunst, wetenschap en literatuur bloeiden als nooit tevoren.

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Download e-book for kindle: Time Machine Tales: The Science Fiction Adventures and by Paul J. Nahin

By Paul J. Nahin

This e-book includes a vast assessment of time commute in technology fiction, besides an in depth exam of the philosophical implications of time trip. The emphasis of this ebook is now at the philosophical and on technological know-how fiction, instead of on physics, as within the author's past books at the topic. In that spirit there are, for instance, no Tech Notes choked with algebra, integrals, and differential equations, as there are within the first and moment variants of TIME MACHINES. Writing approximately time shuttle is, at the present time, a decent enterprise. It hasn’t continually been so. in spite of everything, time commute, prima facie, appears to be like to violate a basic legislations of nature; each impression has a reason, with the reason taking place earlier than the impact. Time commute to the previous, although, turns out to permit, certainly to call for, backwards causation, with an influence (the time tourist rising into the earlier as he exits from his time computer) happening ahead of its reason (the time tourist pushing the beginning button on his machine’s keep watch over panel to begin his journey backward via time). Time computing device stories comprises new discussions of the advances through physicists and philosophers that experience seemed because the ebook of TIME MACHINES in 1999, examples of that are the chapters on time commute paradoxes. these chapters were introduced up to date with the newest philosophical pondering at the paradoxes.

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Selling Science: Polio and the Promise of Gamma Globulin by Stephen E. Mawdsley PDF

By Stephen E. Mawdsley

Today, while many fogeys appear reluctant to have their kids vaccinated, in spite of lengthy confirmed medicinal drugs, the Salk vaccine trial, which enrolled hundreds of thousands of fit young children to check an unproven scientific intervention, turns out not anything in need of magnificent. In Selling Science, scientific historian Stephen E. Mawdsley recounts the untold tale of the 1st huge scientific trial to manage polio utilizing fit children—55,000 fit children—revealing how this long-forgotten incident lead the way for Salk’s later trial.
 
Mawdsley describes how, within the early Fifties, Dr. William Hammon and the nationwide beginning for childish Paralysis introduced a pioneering scientific test on a formerly untried scale. performed on over 55,000 fit teenagers in Texas, Utah, Iowa, and Nebraska, this landmark research assessed the protection and effectiveness of a blood part, gamma globulin, to avoid paralytic polio. the worth of the proposed scan used to be wondered by way of many favorite wellbeing and fitness execs because it harbored capability health and wellbeing hazards, yet as Mawdsley issues out, compromise and coercion moved it ahead. And although the trial lower back doubtful effects, it was once provided to the general public as a triumph and used to justify a federally sanctioned mass immunization learn on millions of households among 1953 and 1954. certainly, the idea that, behavior, and end result of the GG learn have been sold to health and wellbeing pros, scientific researchers, and the general public at each one level. At a time whilst so much american citizens depended on scientists, their mutual come across lower than the auspices of conquering sickness was once formed via politics, advertising and marketing, and from time to time, deception.

Drawing on oral heritage interviews, scientific journals, newspapers, assembly mins, and personal institutional files, Selling Science sheds mild at the ethics of medical behavior, and at the energy of selling to form public opinion approximately clinical experimentation.
 

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Read e-book online Why It's OK to Talk to Your Dog PDF

By David Paxton

Sensational …. A profound re-appraisal of human evolution with dogs.
Our skill to talk phrases set us except different human-like species who couldn't. these different species at the moment are extinct. however the anatomy for talking phrases interferes with our experience of odor. Ancestors of the puppy moved into caves of human ancestors a few 130,000 years in the past. As people and canines tailored to one another, a different, co-evolved partnership emerges. We grew to become a part of every one other’s nature for that reason, if we wish to stay in evidently shiny groups, the human-dog partnership has to be nurtured and managed.

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